Cookbook Glossary

A - F

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A small fish preserved in brine and used to flavor dishes
In the eighteenth century, it was more like Canadian bacon or breakfast ham slices
Bake Kettle:
Utensil for baking a single item on the hearth, with coals above and below; also sometimes called a Dutch oven
Bake oven:
Brick or stone structure for baking large quantities of food items such as bread, cakes, pies, etc.
Piece of firewood, about 12 to 18 inches long and 3 to 4 inches thick
Birch-twig whisk:
Bundle of peeled birch tree twigs tied together, used to whip eggs or cream to a froth
Liquid made by boiling bones to make a stock for use in another dish
Cabbage lettuce:
Head of lettuce such as Bibb or Boston, rather than leaf lettuce
Pie crust to hold filling; or a standing crust
A bowl pierced with holes, used to drain foods
Thin slices of boneless meat, cooked quickly
Corn pone:
Cornmeal bread usually flattened and baked or fried on a griddle
A cylindrical storage container made of redware or stoneware, usually glazed inside and sometimes outside as well, with or without a lid
Imported dried fruits (actually grapes), used in puddings, cakes, etc.
The eating habits and culinary practices of a people, region, or historical period
Force, Forc’d, Farced:
To stuff, stuffed
Highly seasoned balls made of meat and dates, used to stuff or garnish fancy dishes
A dish composed of several ingredients in a broth
Small cakes fried in plenty of fat
Frying pan:
Broad shallow pan with a flat bottom, flaring sides, and long attached handle; may or may not have long legs

G - R

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Gerkins, gherkins:
In the 18th century, small spiny cucumbers, generally pickled; today, small pickled cucumbers
Gill or jill:
1/2 cup or 4 liquid ounces
Flat baking surface, either hung or set on a trivet over coals
Hoe Cake:
Flat unleavened cake made with cornmeal, fried or baked on a griddle
Jamaica pepper:
A highly seasoned flavoring liquid, NOT made with tomatoes until the very end of the eighteenth century
Fat from a pig or hog, rendered for use
Liquid in cooking; not alcohol
To treat fruit or other foods so as to prevent decay
A place of residence, especially the buildings or barracks used to house enslaved people
To grate
Food issued or given to members of a group
Rose water:
Commonly used in the eighteenth century, a liquid flavoring made from distilled rose petals

S - W

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Sallad oil:
Olive oil
A chemical substance, also referred to as potassium nitrate, that was used as a meat preservative
An iron hook, from 3 to 12 inches long, bent into shape of S, and used to lift hot pots or kettles by their bails and to lift lids off bake kettles; also used alone or in a series to hang kettles and pots above the fire
Cornmeal cake, enriched with eggs and milk, fried or backed on a griddle
Small beer:
Beer with low alcoholic content that children often drank
Soup Meager:
Vegetable soup; soup without meat
Shallow round-bottomed cooking utensil on long legs, usually made of iron
A small iron bar with six hooks attached to it, birds to be roasted were hung by string on the hooks and cooked in front of the hearth fire
Double refined sugar is today’s granulated white sugar
A wooden board or platter on which food is carved or served
Turbinado Sugar:
Less refined, brown sugar crystals (today called Sugar in the Raw)
A metal stand with 3 legs to place cooking utensils
Mild, unsulphured molasses
Thin whole wheat pasta noodles, used in soups or puddings
A bubble in boiling; a boiling up; can be counted as a second when boiling starts

This project was developed through a Teaching American History Grant partnership between Anne Arundel County Public Schools, the Center for History Education at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) and Historic London Town and Gardens.