A - F

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abolitionist: an opponent of slavery; someone who actively campaigned against slavery

almshouse: a poorhouse

apprentice: one learning a trade or occupation under the supervision of a skilled worker

archaeology: the scientific study of ancient cultures through the examination of their material remains, such as buildings, graves, tools, pottery, and other artifacts.

artifacts: objects of historical or archaeological interest produced or shaped by humans

bed tick: a stuffed mattress that could be rolled up for easy storage

botanist: one who engages in the science or study of plants

breeches: trousers extending to the knee

butler: a head household servant usually in charge of food service and other servants

carpenter: a worker who makes, finishes, and repairs wooden structures

chamber pot: a portable container used as a toilet

cipher (also cypher): to solve problems by arithmetic

convict servants: people convicted for a variety of crimes to work in the colonies to work as punishment for a set period of time

corn pone: cornmeal bread usually flattened and baked or fried on a griddle

domestic: of or relating to the family or home

ecological: ecology is the study of relationships between living things and their environment

enslaved: to make into a slave

exports: items sent abroad especially for trade

ferry: a boat used to transport passengers, goods, or vehicles across a body of water

flax: a plant that was grown for both its seeds and fiber. The term also refers to the fabric made from the plant's fibers.

frivolous: unworthy of serious attention; inappropriately silly

G - N

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gentry: an upper or ruling class

half-thick breeches: half-thick was a thinner weave of wool usually worn by slaves or servants

hearth: the brick, stone, or cement on the floor of a fireplace that usually extends into the room

hogshead barrels: a barrel or cask with the capacity to hold between 63 and 140 gallons of liquid

hops: the dried flower of the hop plant used in brewing to add flavor to beer

indentured servant: a person who has agreed to work without pay for a set length of time, generally for a period of five to seven years, to pay off their debt.

joiner: a cabinet maker

Late Woodland Period: historical era dating between 3,200-1,000 years ago when pottery and more permanent villages became common

license: having official or legal permission to do something

malnourished: undernourished, supplied with too little food to maintain growth and good health

marriage bond: a binding agreement or covenant to marry

marriage license: a document granting legal permission to marry

merchant: one who buys goods wholesale and sells them for a profit; a business owner or shopkeeper.

midden: a trash mound or heap. Archaeologists study middens to determine the location of human settlements.

midwife: a person trained to assist women during childbirth

mortar and pestle: a container in which substances are crushed or ground with a pestle. A pestle is a club shaped tool used for grinding or smashing substances in a mortar.

Nine Men's Morris: a board game, similar to tic-tac-toe and checkers, in which players try to make three in a row while opponents remove their game pieces

O - P

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ordinary: a licensed public house that accommodated travelers and horses

osnaburg: a heavy, coarse, cotton fabric used for grain sacks, upholstery, draperies, and clothing - especially for the lower classes.

persecution: to oppress or harass with ill-treatment because of race or religion

petticoat: a skirt-like garment worn with a gown or jacket

pickled: preserved in vinegar, brine, or another liquid

poultice: a soft moist mass, usually made of a mixture of plants, flour, and animal fat applied to wounds to prevent infection, inflammation, or soreness

primary source documents: items that recount history or events that were created at that time. Examples include maps, letters, tax records, court records, newspaper accounts, art work, photographs, or anything that might help reveal information about a particular time.

prose: normal writing, not poetry, written without embellishment or rhyme

privy (privies - plural): an outdoor toilet; an outhouse

public house: a business, such as a tavern or inn, that is licensed to sell alcohol, serve food, and provide overnight accommodations

Q - W

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Quaker: a member of the Society of Friends, a Christian group founded by George Fox in England in the 1650s. Quakers believe in peace, simplicity, and equality.

quarters: a place of residence, a proper or assigned place

ration: a fixed portion, especially of food, that was issued to members of a group

schooner: a sailing vessel with at least two masts, a foremast and a mainmast, with fore-and aft-sails on all lower masts

shallop: a small open boat fitted with oars, sails or both and used in shallow waters

shift: a simple garment worn next to the skin made of white linen with drawstrings at the neck and elbows

small beer: weak beer; beer that has been brewed to remove alcohol

smallpox: a highly infectious and often deadly disease that was caused by a pox virus, characterized by high fever, aches and marks or pocks on the skin. It has been controlled through vaccination.

stays: an undergarment that was tied tightly around the ribs, waist, and hips, and stiffened with wire, whalebone, or wood

stockings: a close-fitting knit covering for the foot and leg

sweet bag: a scented sachet filled with flower petals and herbs to mask unpleasant odors

tincture: a medicine made by dissolving a drug in alcohol

tributary (tributaries): a stream that flows into another stream or body of water

valet: a male servant who takes care of clothing and performs other personal services

waistcoat: a short, sleeveless, collarless garment worn over a shirt and under a suit jacket; a vest

This project was developed through a Teaching American History Grant partnership between Anne Arundel County Public Schools, the Center for History Education at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) and Historic London Town and Gardens.